Construction of Rice ATM Infrastructure in Bangladesh
The main food in Bangladesh is rice. About two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the total protein intake of an average person in the country. There are many steps are taken to increase the rice production in Bangladesh since a long time but the rice distribution and marketing system is not improved so much as the contest of rice production. Prices of rice essential commodities declined/increased on the support of market stock gamblers. For this type of reasons the producer of paddy means farmers are not getting fair price for their product on the other hand the consumer are frustrated for the higher price of rice.
Rice is best stored as paddy because the husk provides some protection against insects and helps prevent grain quality deterioration. A safe storage system will prevent the grain from getting wet after drying and also give protection from insects, rodents, and birds.
Grain can be stored in bulk in containers made from wood, metal, or concrete and located under or inside the house. While these storage containers vary in size, they all need to be protected from insect, rodent, and bird attacks as well as moisture uptake.
The value of milled rice in the market is determined by a number of physical and chemical characteristics, and the consumers, which will vary within and within country.
Grain appearance is affected by the amount of chalkiness or white belly. Chalkiness is caused by interruption of the final grain filling.
To balance the value chain of rice it’s crying need for Bangladesh. To combat the future situation we will need to consider. Application of superior resource management technologies Mechanization of rice distribution particularly minimization of market cycle losses.
A storage structure is a repository of farmer’s rice collectively managed and exchanged according to customs and traditions.
For this concept to work, the modality includes introduction through the participatory varietal selection (PVS) process and dissemination of a basket of options to meet varying farmers’ preferences for a modern variety (MV)–farmers’ variety (FV) combination. Many communities combine the conservation of time-treasured traditional varieties that exhibit traits of significant socioeconomic value to farmers (FVs).
With the simple mechanization the rice distribution/selling/marketing can be improved for a sustainable way.
Sealed or hermetic storage systems are an effective means of controlling grain moisture content and insect activity for seed or grain stored in tropical regions. Sealed storage containers come in all shapes and sizes ranging from 50 kg-Super bags, small 25-liter plastic containers, and 200-liter oil drums to costly sealed large plastic or steel commercial storage units of 1–300 tons.
Initially, a set of landed farmers is identified. Farmer’s land is used for demonstration and rice ATM production trials. A designated team can also help farmers with the setting up of the trials. These farmers must be willing to be trained on rice production, rice health management and testing the new varieties/type in their fields to rice ATM as per demand of consumer. Farmers participate in training programs on best rice distribution practices and other topics based on training needs assessment.
Rice Mill Contribution:
Polishing the brown rice to remove the bran layer. Bagging the milled rice; and • Managing the by-products.
Understand the Market:
The community based rice distribution system (CBRDS).
Building a Rice Marketing/Distribution Network:
Until recently, only about 5% of the rice was supplied from farmers, few amount supplied by government agencies and most supplied by the private agencies/dealer. A more efficient national rice distribution system would have to supply from farmers with timely, adequate quality, modern variety rice at affordable prices. With this in mind, we want to develop a public-private network to ensure a continuous supply of batter quality rice under this rice ATM project.
Government Agency involvement:
The government agency relevant to this formal group setup may require specific structures, documentation, systems, and other details:
• Set of officers • Constitution and by-laws Establishing community-based seed systems: A training manual • Production system • Rice collection system • Rice distribution/market system • Distribution of profits • Farm production record-keeping system and farmers’ association chosen system of community Rice ATM banking • Other services and requirements
Link to municipal, district, provincial (and the like) programs in agricultural development, particularly in rice production and crop diversification. Participation of other government organizations and NGOs. Production of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for policymakers and allies at different levels or groups of stakeholders to include policy briefs, brochures, fact sheets, and other briefing materials
Future Vision and Mission:
Scaling up is the vertical movement of experience, knowledge, technologies, impacts, and effects along the ladder or levels of organization of a society.
Controlling Diseases and Pests in Storage:
The growth of fungi, specifically molds, on stored rice causes a decrease in rice quality because of color changes or spoilage of rice. It is important to store rice properly to prevent the growth of these fungi, primarily by avoiding conditions that would promote mold growth.
1. Ensure that the storage area and containers are kept clean to avoid contamination of rice by mold spores.
2. Separate or discard batches of rice that already contain discolored rice.
3. Avoid moisture buildup in and around storage containers and make sure that the stored rice grains have been dried to attain the recommended moisture content.
4. Avoid storing seeds in warm temperatures, since this would also promote mold growth.
The greater the efforts to prevent stored-grain losses, the greater the quantity of higher quality rice available for the people of the rice-consuming countries of the world. Objectives
· Identify common and important storage insect pests in rice
· Enumerate ways to manage storage insect pest infestation
· Describe control and management methods against stored grain pests
Control measures for storage insects:
a. Cleanliness. Good warehouse-keeping practice is the most important, the easiest to do, the lowest in cost, and the most effective pest control measure.
b. Use of chemicals. Spraying, misting, or fogging and fumigation are only supplements for keeping the warehouse clean.
c. Temperature. Proper temperature is probably the most effective means of making long-term storage of rice possible.
d. Moisture. Most stored rice grain insects are unable to survive and reproduce in grain having moisture content below 9%. Sun drying does not reach that low a level.
e. Hermetic control. Airtight or hermetic storage involves storing grain so that it is protected from exchange of gases or liquid with the outside environment.
f. Radiation. This sterilizes or kills insects by damaging cells and producing free radicals that break chemical bonds. Radiation sensitivity is directly related to cell reproductive activity and inversely related to the degree of cell differentiation. Within a developmental stage, the susceptibility of an insect to ionizing radiation varies greatly with age.
g. Biological control. This is the use of natural enemies or beneficial insects for controlling pests of stored products. Several species of beneficial insects are sold that attack the major insect pests in stored grain, including granary weevil, rice weevil, maize weevil, rusty grain beetle, lesser grain borer, confused flour beetle, saw-tooth grain beetle, angoumois grain moth, and Indian meal moth. The bacterial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) can be used during grain storage to kill moth caterpillars that hatch after the rice grain is stored. B.t. is effective only against the larval stage of insects in the moth family, such as grain moths and Indian meal moths. Eggs, pupae, and adults are not affected. The product must be ingested by the caterpillar in order to work. B.t. kills caterpillars by damaging their digestive tract over a period of 2 or more days. There are several product formulations of B.t.
Advantages of rice distribution diversification:
1. Stable yield
2. High net returns from crops
3. Assures alternative sources of food
4. Reduces pests and diseases
5. Reduces the use of chemicals for pest control
6. Optimizes the use of resources
Constraints to rice distribution diversification
1. Limited market demand for farm produce
2. Demand degradation
3. Limited availability of technology for chosen crop(s)
4. Climatic changes
5. Inadequate supply of quality seeds and improved cultivars
6. Poor basic infrastructure (roads, transportation, power)
7. Inadequate postharvest technology and infrastructure
Rice distribution diversification can be used as a strategy for
1. Food and poverty alleviation
2. Meeting nutritional needs
3. Resource management for sustainable agricultural development with infrastructure development
4. Agricultural business planning
5. Employment opportunity in rural areas
6. Relief rice distribution
7. Government work for paid by rice
8. Used in disaster time food grain delivery
For More in formation please contact with Engineers Without Borders Bangladesh.
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Visit: http://ewb-bangladesh.blogspot.com/
For that article some suggestions and thinking is practical oriented and some taken from different published papers.